Muhammad Iqbal (b. 1877–d. 1938) was a preeminent Muslim poet, thinker, and statesman of India. He was educated at Lahore, Cambridge, and Munich. His eloquent writings in Urdu, Persian, and English were aimed at reconstructing Islamic thought in the modern age and galvanizing into action the dormant Muslim communities of India and other lands. They reflect his deep understanding, and his attempt to arrive at a creative synthesis, of the Islamic and Western intellectual and literary traditions. His vision of a separate homeland for India’s Muslims makes Iqbal the spiritual father of Pakistan. His poetry and his philosophical, religious, and political thought are the subject of numerous studies in various languages. His writings have been translated into practically all the major languages of the world, and he has been studied in detail by Western as well as by Muslim writers.
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