Raymond F. Collins

in Biblical Studies

ISBN: 9780195393361
Published online September 2010 | | DOI:


The modern study of the Pastoral Epistles (1–2 Timothy, Titus) began in the first decade of the 19th century when German scholars first questioned Paul’s authorship of 1 Timothy, and Friedrich Schleiermacher’s “critical open letter” to J. C. Gass, written in 1807 on 1 Timothy, proposed that its author based his work on 2 Timothy and Titus. With Johann Gottfried Eichhorn’s Introduction to the New Testament, published in 1810 to 1827, critical German scholarship began to question the authenticity of the three epistles. Ferdinand Christian Baur’s Die sogenannten Pastoralbriefe des Apostels Paulus, of 1835, was the first commentary that used the hypothesis as the basis for a thorough study of the texts. Although Edward Evanson questioned the authenticity of Titus in 1805, the notion that the Pastorals were not written by Paul was largely confined to German scholarship. The debate about the authenticity of the Pastorals dominated scholarship on these letters. Epistles became a matter of scholarly consensus. Some conservative authors continued to maintain the Pauline authorship of the texts, while other scholars expressed hesitancy about the consensus as it applied to 2 Timothy. In recent years several scholars have called for an interpretation of the Pastorals in terms of their individuality, rather than as a unit.

Article.  9963 words. 

Subjects: Biblical Studies

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