Deepak Sarma

in Hinduism

ISBN: 9780195399318
Published online April 2012 | | DOI:


Mādhva Vedānta is a tradition of Vedānta that was developed in the 13th century in southwestern India at modern-day Udupi, by Madhvācārya (1238–1317 ce). The Mādhva school (also known as the Dvaita school) posits that the relationship between Brahman (Vishnu) and the ātman (individual self) is dvaita (dual). Furthermore, Madhvācārya, a realist, claims that the universe is governed by pañcabheda (five types of differences that are real and not illusory): “The universe has five [intrinsic] differences. There is a difference between [each] jīva (enduring self), and Lord [Vishnu]. There is a difference between Lord [Vishnu] and jaḍa (insentient material entities). There is difference between the individual jīvas. There is a difference between jīvas and jaḍas. There is a difference between one jaḍa and another. The [difference among these five] is real.” (Madhvācārya, Viṣṇutattva(vi)nirṇaya). Knowing this, and exhibiting the proper bhakti toward Vishnu, adherents can eventually obtain mokṣa (liberation) from saṃsāra (the cycle of birth and rebirth). While the Mādhva school is not as well known in the West as the school of Advaita founded by Śaṃkarācārya (788–820 ce), or the school of Viśiṣṭādvaita founded by Rāmānujācārya (1017–1137 ce), it is very well known in India, and the Udupi Śrī Kṛṣṇa temple, founded by Madhvācārya himself, is an important pilgrimage site.

Article.  3768 words. 

Subjects: Hinduism

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