Article

Global Civil Society

Debora Spini

in International Relations

ISBN: 9780199743292
Published online November 2012 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199743292-0021
Global Civil Society

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The category of “civil society” regained a prominent place in theoretical and political debates after the end of the Cold War and throughout the 1990s acquired a markedly “global” dimension. On the one hand, the scope and meaning of politics have undergone a profound transformation. As the line dividing politics, economy, and society is increasingly blurred, social actors have acquired an unquestionable political relevance. On the other hand, globalization processes have dramatically subverted the distinction between domestic and international politics. In this context, civil society, once a space enshrined by the borders of nation-states, now stretches above and beyond state boundaries. All non-governmental organizations that for their scope and composition are defined as global or transnational have experienced a rocketing growth in number and influence. Civil society organizations are becoming full-fledged actors in global governance. The theoretical debate has also concentrated on the role of civil society in constructing democracy beyond the borders of nation-states. This article analyzes works that consider civil society as composed of groups constituted on a voluntary basis engaging on issues of common interest and functioning transnationally or supernationally; for this reason, it does not consider literature on social movements but includes works where civil society is considered a key actor in global governance. Although the literature is growing fast, the very definition of “global civil society” (GCS) remains controversial. Most authors are influenced by the experiences of 1989 and by the theoretical works of Habermas and Cohen and Arato. Civil society is thus described as composed by groups formed on a voluntary basis (in a certain sense “private”) that mobilize on issues of public interest. Oftentimes GCS is associated, by both media and scholarly literature, with organizations acting on issues such as environment, human rights, and global justice. Most scholarship does not include GCS actors coming from the sphere of economy; only a minority looks at Hegel, Marx, or Gramsci. This choice in many cases does not help capture the transformations of politics in an age marked by a growing interconnection between social, political, and economic agency. The literature considered here will be divided according to two main perspectives, descriptive and normative. However, as some authors tend to overlap the descriptive and the normative levels, cross-references will be necessary. This article concentrates on the last decade of scholarship.

Article.  6923 words. 

Subjects: International Relations

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