Article

Industrial and Organizational Psychology

Kurt Kraiger

in Psychology

ISBN: 9780199828340
Published online November 2011 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0034
Industrial and Organizational Psychology

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Industrial/organizational (I/O) psychology addresses individuals’ attitudes, behaviors, cognition, and emotions at work. More formally, it is the science of collecting, analyzing, and using data to help organizations make better decisions about the selection, placement, and management of workers, as well as the design of organizational systems that enhance the performance, health, and affect of organizational members. The label industrial/organizational recognizes the dual roots of the field. Industrial was once a modernization of the descriptor “personnel” and reflects the classic study of individual attributes and how they fit job demands. Industrial psychology encompasses specific topics such as job analysis, test construction, personnel selection, performance appraisal, and training. Organizational psychology grew out of the human relations movement triggered by the famous Hawthorne studies of the 1930s and encompasses specific topics such as worker motivation, job satisfaction, job design, leadership, and group and team performance. In research and practice, the distinction between industrial and organizational psychology is largely artificial, because most topics cut across both topic areas, and I/O research also draws heavily on advancements in management studies, organizational behavior, social psychology, and cognitive psychology. Research methods in I/O are broad, including both laboratory and field settings, both true experiments and opportunity samples. A recent trend that is likely to continue is the use of sophisticated multilevel sampling and data analysis methods, because these approaches account for the reality that affect, cognition, and behavior have multiple influences at individual, group, and organizational levels.

Article.  11078 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Cognitive Psychology ; Developmental Psychology ; Health Psychology ; History and Systems in Psychology ; Educational Psychology ; Social Psychology

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