Article

Schizophrenic Disorders

Angus W. MacDonald, Ansam El Shaikh, Craig Moodie, Andrew Poppe, Ian Ramsay and Krista Wisner

in Psychology

ISBN: 9780199828340
Published online February 2013 | | DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/obo/9780199828340-0105
Schizophrenic Disorders

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While allusions to psychoses in the West date back to ancient Greek medicine and literature, the modern concept of schizophrenia is generally attributed to the German psychiatrist Emil Kraepelin (b. 1856–d. 1926). His description of schizophrenia as a syndrome composed of a diverse collection of seemingly unrelated symptoms that tended to co-occur across patients forms the basis for our modern diagnosis. According to the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association (DSM-IV-TR), the diagnosis of schizophrenia requires two or more of the following manifestations of psychosis: delusions; hallucinations; disorganized speech; disorganized or catatonic behavior; or negative symptoms, such as lacking normal emotional responses to events, lacking normal levels of motivation, or a reduced flow of speech. To reduce the variety of people diagnosed with the disorder, the criteria also include a minimum duration and rule-outs for other conditions. These criteria will be changed very little in the forthcoming revision of the DSM (DSM-V). From Kraepelin’s early work to current diagnostic systems, schizophrenia has always been acknowledged to have varied cases within the disorder, as well as many cases that fall outside the diagnosis but that appear to be related to the construct. These include bipolar affective disorder with psychotic features and schizotypal personality disorder, which form part of a “schizophrenia spectrum.” We sometimes speak of schizophrenic disorders, rather than schizophrenia as a monolithic entity, to acknowledge this ambiguity and the possibility that people may have symptoms as a result of different causes. After a general introduction, this article is organized around different facets of the disorder: Causes, Brain Cells and Chemistry, Pathology, Neural and Behavioral Functioning, and Treatment.

Article.  4898 words. 

Subjects: Psychology ; Cognitive Psychology ; Developmental Psychology ; Health Psychology ; History and Systems in Psychology ; Educational Psychology ; Social Psychology

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