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Shah of Persia (1588–1628). He ended an inherited war with the Ottomans by conceding territory (1590) in order to free himself to drive the Uzbek Turks from north‐eastern Persia (1598). By 1618 he had strengthened his army by curbing the Turcoman chiefs who supplied his recruits, and by using foreign advisers, and had reconquered the lands ceded to the Ottomans, but he died before the end of a further war over Mesopotamia (1623–29).

Subjects: History — Islam.

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