Grouping pupils together in classes to be taught according to their ability. In the United Kingdom this is not usually the case, as pupils are normally grouped according to age, and within a national framework of key stages of development. However, primary schools often use target grouping for literacy and/or numeracy, which is, in effect, grouping by ability for the purpose of teaching in these curriculum areas. Similarly, in secondary schooling, pupils may be grouped according to ability within their age group cohort for specific subjects, so that there might be, for example, three Year 9 classes for English: one for high achievers, one for those pupils of average achievement, and one for those expected to do less well. See also sets.