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A. Sen (1999) measures access to advantage by one's access to basic needs: satisfying goods—like food; freedoms—as in a labour market; and capabilities. S. W. Allard (2004), in an examination of access to social services in three American cities, finds that poor populations in urban centres generally have greater spatial access to social services than poor populations in the suburbs, and that the potential demand for services is much greater in central city areas than in suburban areas.

Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.

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