The regulation of the concentrations of acids and bases in blood and other body fluids so that the pH remains within a physiologically acceptable range (see pH scale). This is achieved by the presence of natural buffer systems, such as the haemoglobin, hydrogencarbonate ions, and carbonic acid in mammalian blood. By acting in conjunction, these effectively mop up excess acids and bases and therefore prevent any large shifts in blood pH. The acid-base balance is also influenced by the selective removal of certain ions by the kidneys and the rate of removal of carbon dioxide from the lungs.
Subjects: Medicine and Health — Biological Sciences.