An organic radical or functional group derived from an organic acid. Common examples are formyl, acetyl, and benzoyl moieties, from formic, acetic, and benzoic acids respectively. Acylation is the addition of an acyl (RCO-) group into a molecule: e.g. the formation of an ester between glycerol and fatty acid to form mono-, di-, or tri-acylglycerol, or the formation of an aminoacyl-tRNA during protein synthesis. Acyltransferases (EC 2.3.1.-) catalyse the transfer of acyl groups from a carrier such as acetyl CoA to a reactant. Acyl CoA dehydrogenases, see ACADs; acyl CoA:cholesterol acyltransferase, see ACAT. Acyl carrier proteins, see ACPs.
Subjects: Medicine and Health — Chemistry.