A small family of adenosine deaminases (adenosine deaminases acting on RNA, EC 3.5.4.-, ADAR1–3, editases) that edit adenosine residues to inosine in double-stranded RNA (dsRNA). This editing will modify viral genomes and is also known to affect the mRNA for glutamate receptor subunits. ADAR1 (1226 aa) is associated with the RNA surveillance protein HUPF1 (RENT1) in the supraspliceosome. ADAR2 (ADARB1, 741 aa) is widely expressed in brain and other tissues, and knockout mice die young. ADAR3 (739 aa) may have a regulatory role in RNA editing. Defects in ADAR1 are a cause of dyschromatosis symmetrical hereditaria. See adenosine deaminase (ADAT1).
Subjects: Medicine and Health.