Any of three compounds in which the nucleoside adenosine is attached through its ribose group to one, two, or three phosphoric acid molecules, as illustrated below. AMP, ADP, and ATP are interconvertible. ATP upon hydrolysis yields the energy used to drive a multitude of biological processes (muscle contraction, photosynthesis, bioluminescence, and the biosynthesis of proteins, nucleic acids, polysaccharides and lipids). The most important process in human nutrition is the synthesis of ATP. Every day human beings synthesize, breakdown, and resynthesize an amount of ATP equaling their body weight. See Chronology, 1929; Lohmann; ATPase, ATP synthase, citric acid cycle, cytochromes, electron transport chain, glycolysis, mitochondria, oxidative phosphorylation, mitochondrial proton transport.
Subjects: Chemistry — Genetics and Genomics.