Late Neolithic communities in southern Siberia living around the headwaters of the Ob and Yenisei rivers during the early 3rd millennium bc. Reliant on breeding cattle, sheep, and horses, these communities also engaged in hunting; they do not appear to have used agriculture. The culture is best known through its burials which typically comprise groups of round barrows (kurgans), each up to 12 m in diameter with a stone kerb and covering a central pit grave containing multiple inhumations. Pottery suggests contacts with the slightly earlier Keltaminar Culture of the Aral and Caspian Sea area. The Afanasievo Culture was succeeded by the Andronovo Culture in the mid 2nd millennium bc.