; order Diptera, suborder Cyclorrapha)
Relatively large family of small, phytophagous flies, whose larvae are leaf-miners, stem-borers, or gall-causers. The third antennal segment is short and rounded, and rarely has a sharp point. The arista is hairy or bare. The lower fronto-orbital bristles are incurved; vibrissae are present; and the tibia is without pre-apical bristles. The costa is incomplete, being broken some distance from its junction with the upper margin of vein 1, and continued as far as the apex of vein 3. The ovipositor has a non-retractile sheath comprising the fused seventh abdominal tergite and sternite. They have a world-wide distribution, and 2300 species have been described.
Subjects: Zoology and Animal Sciences.