Iranian writer and social critic, noted for his polemical booklet Gharbzadegi (Westoxification), published in 1962, the title of which became a popular term expressing anti-Western sentiment. Criticized Iranian secular reformists for having passively subscribed to Western cultural values and political theories. Further prescribed that Iran, as part of the Muslim world, should rely more confidently on its own traditional heritage, including religious identity. Made an early break with his family's Shii clerical tradition that was marked by a short-lived association with the pro-Soviet Tudeh Party. Viewed as important to the alliance of the left and Shii clerics that led to the Iranian revolution.