Pakistani Islamic scholar, activist, and economist who attempted to develop Islamic economics using Quranic value patterns to provide an alternative to capitalism and socialism. Teaches that social responsibility takes precedence over individual rights. Proposes cooperation and mutual obligations, rather than competition. Promotes human resource development as an objective of economic policy. Critical of West but recognizes the importance of science and technology. A lifelong follower of Mawlana Abu al Ala Mawdudi and translator of his major works into English. Served as minister of planning in the military regime of General Zia-ul-Haq. Founding chairman of the Islamic Foundation, Leicester (UK), Institute of Policy Studies, Islamabad, and vice president of the Jamaat-i Islami Pakistan. Was a member of Pakistan's senate.