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Transferring resources from developed to less developed countries. Bilateral aid is from one donor to a recipient country, while multilateral aid comes from a group of countries. Emergency aid is short-term, generally given in response to disasters: ‘windfalls in relief and reconstruction aid can also increase the risk of (perceived) fraud, corruption, mismanagement and dispossession by the government and its cronies, aggravating the plight of the most vulnerable’ (LeBillon and Waizenegger (2007) TIBG32, 3). Structural aid is given for long-term development; see Seguiti (2003) Public Budget. & Finance 23, 2 on EU structural aid. A donor of tied aid can transfer resources more cheaply as its aid is tied to its own exports (Kemp (2005) Pacif. Econ. Rev. 10, 3).

Bebbington (2004) PHG28, 6 criticizes NGOs: ‘their geographies of intervention do not reflect the geographies of poverty and livelihood in the Andes; and their strategies of intervention do not respond to the economic and spatial dynamics of poor people's livelihoods…they do less and less to address the deeper processes of…development that produce poverty and inequality of opportunity.’ See Swain (2006) TIBG31, 2 on aid and market principles ‘designed by the government of the United States and the international financial institutions…and implemented by, them in various ways, for the more vulnerable societies, often as stringent structural adjustment programs’ (N. Chomsky1999).

Subjects: Social Sciences — Earth Sciences and Geography.

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