Twelfth-century Twelver Shii school of thought in Iran. Stressed the literal interpretation of the Quran and hadith of both Muhammad and the Twelve Imams as a source of religious authority. Restricted the authority of individual scholars for interpretation, declared ijtihad (independent reasoning) an unsound and unnecessary innovation, and denied the role of the mujtahid (practitioner of ijtihad) in guiding Shii society. Saw the role of ulama as a matter of reviewing fundamental sources for answers to problems, rather than developing new solutions. Became the dominant school in intellectual studies in Shii holy cities. Engaged in major debate with Usulis, who accorded greater authority to mujtahids and interpretion of law according to individual reasoning.
See also Usulis