Moroccan reformist, educator, and opponent of the French colonial regime. Major figure in the spread of the Salafi reform movement, which was opposed to popular religion. Supported Arabic and Islamic education, encouraging the development of Moroccan nationalism. Opposed to the religious practices of Sufi tariqahs cooperating with the colonial government. Nationalists translated this into religious opposition to the Christian colonial regime. Student of Abu Shuayb al-Dukkali.