Third son of Robert II and uncrowned ruler of Scotland for 32 years (1388–1420). While still a young man, Robert acquired the earldoms of Menteith [S] (1361) and Fife [S] (1371); he became royal chamberlain in 1382; and in December 1388 was made guardian for his infirm elder brother John, earl of Carrick [S] (later Robert III, 1390–1406). In 1398 Robert was created duke of Albany, a title which reflected his ambitions.
Albany's guardianship was characterized by intermittent hostility towards England, consistent support (until 1418) of the antipope Benedict XIII, a growing commitment to the French alliance, and a ruthless elimination of political opponents.
Subjects: British History.