Roman and later settlement beside the River Ouse in the Vale of York known mainly through antiquarian excavations. Extensive Flavian occupation suggests a fort of the Roman IXth Legion and a vicus lasting through the later 1st century AD. The settlement became the civitas capital Isurium Brigantum in the early 2nd century. Earthwork defences were built in the late 2nd century enclosing a rectangular area of 22.3 ha. There were four main gates, one in the centre of each side, with baths to the west. The defences were strengthened with the addition of a stone wall in the mid 3rd century. Several houses have been excavated within the town, one with a fine mosaic pavement carrying a Greek inscription beside the figure of a man reading from a scroll. Another depicts the legend of Romulus and Remus. Occupation continued down into Anglian and Viking times on a small scale. The modern village of Aldborough lies within the southern part of the former Roman town and has a fine medieval church and market cross.
M. Snape, P. Bidwell, and A. Croom, 2002, Aldborough Roman town: excavations by Miss D. Charlesworth 1961–73 and RCHME 1959–60. Yorkshire Archaeological Journal, 74, 29–111