novelist and critic, born in Norfolk, is best known for his works of science fiction and his involvement with the cause of science fiction as a literary genre; he has written a history of the subject, Billion Year Spree (1973). His works include Non‐Stop (1958), Greybeard (1964), and Enemies of the System (1978). His sense of the tradition is manifested in Frankenstein Unbound (1973), which pays tribute to his view of M. Shelley's work as ‘the first novel of the Scientific Revolution’, and Moreau's Other Island (1980) which picks up the theme of H. G. Wells's The Island of Dr Moreau (1896). Helliconia Spring (1982), Helliconia Summer (1983), and Helliconia Winter (1985) form an epic trilogy describing the evolution of a whole planetary system, in which each season lasts for centuries. More recent works include Cracken at Critical (1987), Dracula Unbound (1991), and Remembrance Day (1993). Bury My Heart at W. H. Smith's (1990) and The Twinkling of an Eye (1998) are autobiographical.