Pope from 1061. He had been Bp. of Lucca. Elected Pope with the support of Hildebrand (later Gregory VII), he was enthroned without the support of the Emp. Henry IV, who had an antipope (Honorius II) elected. Generally recognized as Pope from 1064, Alexander tried to realize the ideals of the reforming party. He renewed the decrees against simony and enforcing clerical celibacy, laid down regulations for the freedom of episcopal elections, and legislated on matrimony, and took strong action to enforce these measures. His blessing was given to William I's invasion of England.