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In early Islam, those who contended that only a member of the Prophet's clan of Hashim (descendants of Ali) should rule and that political legitimacy lay in genealogy; the Shii community. Others, such as the Umayyads, held that consensus of the Muslim community was necessary to establish a legitimate claim to head the Islamic community. Alids fomented numerous uprisings in the last years of Umayyad rule (661–750). By the late eighth century, some Shiis had developed the imamate concept, which held that only an Alid could rightfully claim leadership of the Muslim community.

Subjects: Islam.

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