The Hebrew alphabet has twenty-two letters, five of which have a slightly different form when they occur at the end of a word to close the word. The letters are shown in the table:
These letters are all consonants, to which the vowels have to be added in order to form words. In the Sefer Torah, for instance, only the consonants are written, the reader supplying the vowels. The vowels and the signs by which they are recorded are:patah (–) = a as in hat.segol (∵) = e as in let.hirek (.) = i as in lit.kibbutz ( ֻ) = u as in bull.kametz, short (τ) = o as in top.kametz, long (τ) = a as in yard (sign the same for both short and long).tzere (..) = e as in they.shurek (․) = long u as in flute.holem (דׄ) = long o as in role.
patah (–) = a as in hat.
segol (∵) = e as in let.
hirek (.) = i as in lit.
kibbutz ( ֻ) = u as in bull.
kametz, short (τ) = o as in top.
kametz, long (τ) = a as in yard (sign the same for both short and long).
tzere (..) = e as in they.
shurek (․) = long u as in flute.
holem (דׄ) = long o as in role.