Egyptian Islamic intellectual and prolific writer. Has written more than one hundred books on Islamic philosophy, the Quran, politics, and intellectual issues. Has compiled and commented on the works of major Muslim reformers such as Jamal al-Din al-Afghani, Muhammad Abduh, and Abd al-Rahman al-Kawakibi. Considered an independent Islamic intellectual activist, not linked to organized Islamist groups, who attempts to give rise to a comprehensive, rationalist, and contemporary Islamic model. Criticizes secular intellectuals and their attempts to separate Islam from state affairs and the ideological orientations of society. Has gained recognition and respect throughout the Arab world on the basis of his extensive research.