A family of enzymes (transaminases, EC 2.6.1.x) that transfer an amino group from an amino acid to an α-keto acid. Glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (EC 220.127.116.11, aspartate aminotransferase) catalyses the transfer from glutamate to oxaloacetic acid (producing aspartic acid and α-ketoglutarate) and is a pyridoxal phosphate-dependent enzyme which exists in both mitochondrial (430 aa) and cytosolic (413 aa) forms. Branched chain aminotransferases (EC 18.104.22.168, BCAT1, 393 aa; BCAT2) act on amino acids with nonlinear aliphatic side chains (leucine, isoleucine, and valine). Two clinical disorders are due to a defect of branched chain amino acid transamination, hypervalinaemia and hyperleucine–isoleucinaemia.
Subjects: Medicine and Health.