Amir al-Muminin

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Commander of the faithful. Title first attributed to the second caliph, Umar ibn al-Khattab (r. 634–44), and adopted by numerous Muslim leaders throughout history. Use of the title waned after the thirteenth-century Mongol invasions, and Ottoman sultans rarely invoked it; West African Muslim communities employed the term through the early nineteenth century.

Subjects: Islam.

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