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A small co‐principality in the Pyrennes, between France and Spain.


Andorra has a landscape of valleys at around 900 m (3000 feet) which rise to peaks at 2900 m (9600 feet). The attractive mountain scenery is snow‐covered for several months of the year.


Tourism is the main industry, employing 37% of the labour‐force, with commerce, forestry, and the construction industry also of importance.


According to tradition, Charlemagne granted independence to Andorra in 803 ad. Andorra came under the control of the Counts of Urgel and subsequently the Bishops of the diocese of Urgel. A dispute between the French and Spanish heirs of the Bishops and Counts in the late 13th century was resolved by making Andorra a co‐principality, jointly ruled by a French and a Spanish prince. In 1993 Andorra adopted a democratic constitution, which legalized political parties and reduced the powers of the co‐princes (who are now the President of France and the Spanish Bishop of Urgel), making them constitutional heads of state only.


Andorra la Vella


468 sq km (181 sq miles)


74,800 (2005)


1 euro = 100 cents


Roman Catholic 94.2%; Jewish 0.4%; Jehovah's Witnesses 0.3%; Protestant 0.2%

Ethnic Groups:

Spanish 40.6%; Andorran 36.0%; Portuguese 10.2%; French 6.5%; British 1.4%


Catalan (official); French; Spanish

International Organizations:

UN, OSCE, Council of Europe

Subjects: World History — History by Period.

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