(1824–26; 1852–53; 1885)
Conflicts between British India and Burma. In 1824 a threatened Burmese invasion of Bengal led to a British counter‐invasion, which captured Rangoon and forced the cession to Britain of Arakan and Tenasserim, the payment of a large indemnity, and the renunciation of Burmese claims to Assam. After a period of relative harmony, hostile treatment of British traders led to a second invasion in 1852, as a result of which Rangoon and the Irrawaddy delta was annexed. In 1885, the alleged francophile tendencies of King Thibaw (1878–85) provoked a third invasion which captured the royal capital at Mandalay and led to Thibaw's exile. Upper Burma became a province of British India, although guerrilla resistance to British rule was not suppressed for another five years.
Subjects: World History.