Persian. Assembly, meeting, or association. An organization initially formed by government officials and intellectuals who wanted to emulate European concepts of government to modernize Iran. Played a leading role in the Constitutional Revolution (1905–11). Advocated and opened modern schools and libraries to disseminate European ideas. Coordinated the activities of different groups seeking political change. The term is also used generically to refer to religious associations serving as political opposition groups. Particularly popular among students and educated members of the lower and middle classes in the years preceding the Islamic revolution of 1979. Literary anjumans also served to disseminate European literary and cultural ideas and literature but did not adopt political stands.
See also Majlis