Winters are severe, with characteristic double temperature minima, i.e. two separate occasions of minimum temperature, due to the absence of insolation for several winter months, and to the frequent exchange of air with that of lower latitudes. Blizzards are common. Temperatures rise in late summer as the long waves of the westerlies bring incursions of warmer air. Nevertheless, precipitation is still almost always in the form of snow, since maximum temperatures, occurring at the summer (December) solstice, rarely exceed 0 °C. See J. King and J. Turner (1997).
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.