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Eight Seleucid kings, notably Antiochus III and Antiochus IV. Antiochus III (known as ‘Antiochus the Great’) (c. 242–187bc) reigned from 223 to 187bc. He restored and expanded the Seleucid empire, regaining the vassal kingdoms of Parthia and Bactria and conquering Armenia, Syria, and Palestine. When he invaded Europe he came into conflict with the Romans, who defeated him on land and sea and severely limited his power. Antiochus IV Epiphanes (c. 215–163bc), son of Antiochus III, reigned from 175 to 163bc. His firm control of Judaea and his attempt to Hellenize the Jews resulted in the revival of Jewish nationalism and the Maccabean revolt.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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