fifth General of the Jesuits from 1581. Under his leadership the Society was consolidated both in respect of its internal structures and its characteristic approach to ministry. Its membership increased from c.5,000 to c.13,000. The ‘Ratio Studiorum’ (q.v.) was completed, as well as a set of guidelines (or ‘Directory’) for the use of the Spiritual Exercises. He also overcame a number of attempts to change the Society's form of government which were instigated by Spanish Jesuits with powerful support.
Subjects: Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Christianity.