Defined by an anticolonial ethos and the glorification of origins and history in the face of Western dominance experienced by Arab countries in the nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Aims at political reunification of all Arabic-speaking states. Roots traced by some scholars to eighteenth-century reform movements or nineteenth-century anticolonial movements; others consider it a twentieth-century phenomenon based on Arabic language and culture. Manifested in the Arab revolt against the Ottoman Empire during World War I to protest its Turkification program, and in the short-lived United Arab Republic (merger between Egypt and Syria from 1958 to 1961). Invoked by Saddam Hussein during the Gulf War in a failed attempt to unite Arabs and Muslims against Western powers.
See also Nationalism and Islam