Elizabeth Arden was born Florence Nightingale Graham in Woodbridge, Ontario on 31 December 1878, the daughter of William and Susan Graham. She died in New York City on 18 October 1966. She married Thomas Jenkins Lewis in 1915; after divorcing him in 1934 she married Prince Michael Evlanoff in 1944, but divorced him in 1946. After leaving school she trained as a nurse, moving to New York in 1907. In 1908 she took a clerical job in a beauty salon, learned about facial massage and cosmetics, and in 1909 opened a salon with a partner, Elizabeth Hubbard. In 1910 the partnership broke up and Graham opened her own salon, changing her name to Elizabeth Arden, a name she felt more appropriate for her profession (the surname came from the title of a Tennyson poem). By 1914 she was producing her own cosmetics, and opened a branch in Washington, DC; more branches followed, including one in Paris in 1922. By the 1930s she was selling a range of over 300 cosmetics, and had established salons across the United States and Europe.
From The Encyclopedia of the History of American Management in Oxford Reference.
Subjects: Management and Management Techniques.