## Quick Reference

The study of the natural numbers, which are 0, 1, 2, 3…and their successors. Arithmetic is characterized by Peano's postulates. Philosophical questions include the nature of our knowledge of those postulates; the nature of the numbers, which are apparently the objects of which arithmetic treats; and the relation of arithmetic to empirical science. See also abstract/concrete, conventionalism, formalism, logicism.

*Subjects:*
Early Modern History (1500 to 1700) — Philosophy.