(c. 18 bc–19ad)
Leader of the Germanic resistance to Roman colonization. Born into a noble family, he served as an officer in the Roman auxiliary forces and became a Roman citizen. However, he turned against Rome and in 9 ad annihilated Quinctilius Varus and his three legions, thereby wrecking Augustus' German policy; in 16 he thwarted the attempt of Tiberius' nephew Germanicus to renew the conquest. Nevertheless, he failed to unite the fragmented Germanic tribes; in 19 his own aspirations to kingship encountered popular opposition and he was murdered.