British inventor and industrialist. A pioneer of mechanical cotton‐spinning, in 1767 he patented a water‐powered spinning machine (known as a ‘water frame’), the first such machine to produce yarn strong enough to be used as warp. He also improved the preparatory processes, including carding. He established spinning mills in Lancashire, Derbyshire, and Scotland, and became rich and powerful, despite disputes with rivals over patents and opposition to his mechanization of the industry.
Subjects: British History — World History.