Druze reformist, activist, and writer. Played an important role in Arab/Islamic politics between the two world wars. Served as Ottoman administrator and in the Ottoman parliament in 1914. Loyalty to the Ottoman Empire led him to oppose Sharif Husyan's Arab revolt in 1916, warning of the advent of European imperial powers. Exiled after World War I to Geneva, where he founded the anti-European journal Le Nation arabe. Died as an advocate of the Axis powers.