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Early 5th‐cent. bc

ruler, under Persian suzerainty, over Halicarnassus and Cos. In the Persian Wars Artemisia accompanied Xerxes' expedition with five ships. Acc. to the Halicarnassian Herodotus, she was a ‘warner’ figure, who unsuccessfully urged Xerxes not to fight at Salamis, but fought bravely and escaped by sinking a ship in her way. Xerxes remarked ‘my men have become women and my women men’. Afterwards she urged him to retreat and transported part of his family to Ephesus.

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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