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Daughter of Hecatomnus, ruled Caria (south-west Asia Minor) with her full brother and incestuous husband Mausolus in the mid-4th cent.bc: Ilabraunda (1972), no. 40, joint decree in Greek (‘it seemed good to Mausolus and Artemisia’) conferring honours on Cnossus in Crete. He certainly used the Persian title satrap and she probably did too. At his death in 353 (when she succeeded him, ruling until 351) she was grief-stricken, supposedly drank his ashes (Gell. NA 10. 18), and organized a rhetorical funeral competition at which Theodectes, Theopompus (the winner), and others performed; but the participant ‘Isocrates’ may not be the famous man of that name. She held down Rhodes, already absorbed into the Hecatomnid sphere of influence by Mausolus, and was the target of Demosthenes' speech 15 (351) ‘On the Freedom of the Rhodians’, urging an attack on Caria to free the Rhodian democrats. She should share with her satrapal brothers and sister (Mausolus, Idrieus, Pixodarus, Ada) the responsibility for spreading Hellenism in Caria, while retaining the native cultural element, in the generation before Alexander the Great.

Simon Hornblower

Subjects: Classical Studies.

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