A large, heterogeneous group of conditions, of viral, rickettsial, bacterial, protozoal, or metazoal origin that share the epidemiological feature of transmission by an arthropod vector such as a mosquito, tick, sandfly, or blackfly. Transmission may be mechanical, the pathogen simply using the arthropod to travel to a susceptible host, as flies transmit fecal-oral infection or trachoma. However, transmission of arthropod-borne diseases usually is biological; that is, the pathogen undergoes a portion of its life cycle in the arthropod vector, as, for example, malaria parasites do. In the case of some, including many virus diseases (arbovirus diseases), the transmission cycle may include a period of “hibernation” of both the arthropod and the pathogen during cool or dry seasons, known as overwintering.
Subjects: Public Health and Epidemiology.