National hero of Uruguay. He led the Uruguyan movement for independence from Spain during the years 1811–13 and maintained this in the face of the territorial ambitions of Argentina in 1814. Uruguay also had to contend with Portuguese expansionists from Brazil, and Portuguese troops captured Montevideo in 1817. Artigas was unable to dislodge them. He conducted guerrilla warfare against them for three years, but in 1820 was forced to retreat to Argentina and never returned to Uruguay.
Subjects: World History.