1 An age in the Permian Epoch, preceded by the Sakmarian, followed by the Kungurian, and dated at 284.4–275.6 Ma (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004).
2 The name of the corresponding eastern European stage, which is roughly contemporaneous with the upper Rotliegende (western Europe), lower/middle Leonardian (N. America), and the Bitaunian (New Zealand).
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