Statesman, journalist, author. Born Leopold Weiss into a Jewish family in Austria. Studied philosophy and the history of art. Traveled extensively in the Middle East and North Africa as a journalist. Regarded as an expert on Middle East affairs and the Arabic language. Embraced Islam in 1926. Spent many years among the Bedouins in Saudi Arabia. Later moved to British India. Represented Pakistan at the United Nations as an envoy. Wrote four books and translated the Sahih al-Bukhari and the Quran into English. Favored a rationalist interpretation of the Quran. Produced a monthly journal, Arafat. Buried in Granada, Spain.