A philosophical doctrine concerning origination or causation, according to which the material effect differs from, or does not pre-exist in the material cause. This position is held by the Nyāya and Vaiśeṣika schools, as well as by certain Buddhist schools, and Madhva's Dvaita Vedānta. For example, the Nyāya-Vaiśeṣikas maintain that a wooden table is a new object that is neither identical with nor pre-existent in the wood from which it was made. More significantly, it leads them to postulate an agent or efficient cause of the universe, namely God (īśvara). See also satkāryavāda.