1 An age (294.6–299 Ma ago) in the Early Permian Epoch, preceded by the Stephanian, Gzhelian, and Noginskian (Carboniferous), followed by the Sakmarian (Int. Commission on Stratigraphy, 2004).
2 The name of the corresponding eastern European stage which, because of lower boundary uncertainties, has also been considered as part of the Carboniferous system. It is roughly contemporaneous with the lower Wolfcampian and lower Rotliegende (western Europe), and with the lower Somoholoan (New Zealand). See also sakmarian.