The international movement of refugees and persons who, while having suffered generalized repression, violence, and poverty, do not qualify as refugees under the strict requirements of the 1976 UN protocol. ‘Asylum seeking is embedded in complex ways in the linkages and structures of transnational entrepreneurism, informal economic activity and the shadow labour markets of the host economy’ (B. Jordan and F. Düvell2002).
Economic hardship and economic discrimination against ethnic minorities lead to higher inflows of asylum seekers; political oppression, human rights abuse, violent conflict, and state failure are also important determinants, as are migration networks and geographical proximity (Neumayer (2005) Int. Studs Qly. 49, 3). Attempts by the EU to reduce access to asylum systems or to curtail the rights of asylum seekers have generated an increase in illegal migration (Boswell (2003) Int. Affairs 79, 3). ‘If Western European countries want to tackle the root causes of asylum migration, then they need to undertake policy measures that promote economic development, democracy, respect for human rights and peaceful conflict resolution in countries of origin’ (Neumayer, op. cit.).
Subjects: Earth Sciences and Geography.